Cite as: Stefanescu, D., 2020. Alternate Means of Digital Design Communication (PhD Thesis). UCL, London.

Abbott, A., 1992. The System of Professions: An Essay on the Division of Expert Labour. University of Chicago Press.

Afsari, K., Eastman, C.M., Shelden, D.R., 2016. Data Transmission Opportunities for Collaborative Cloud-Based Building Information Modelling. In: Blucher Design Proceedings, pp. 907–913.

Aish, R., 2009. Collaborative Design using Long Transactions and ‘Change Merge.’ In: Computation: The New Realm of Architectural Design. pp. 107–111.

Aish, R., 2014. First Build Your Tools. In: Inside SmartGeometry. Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 36–49.

Aish, R., Fleming, J., 1977. CAD Education in Architecture. Teeside Polytechnic, Cleveland.

Almirall, E., Wareham, J., 2011. Living Labs: arbiters of mid- and ground-level innovation. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management 23, 87–102.

Almirall, E., Lee, M., Wareham, J., 2012. Mapping Living Labs in the Landscape of Innovation Methodologies. Technology Innovation Management Review 12–18.

Almirall, E., Wareham, J., 2008. Living Labs and Open Innovation: Roles and Applicability.

Amor, R., Faraj, I., 2002. Misconceptions About Integrated Project Databases. Journal of Information Technology in Construction 6, 57–68.

Arup, 2016. Total Design Over Time, Wardour Communications.

Barbosa, F., Woetzel, J., Mischke, J., Ribeirinho, M.J., Sridhar, M., Parsons, M., Bertram, N., Brown, S., 2017. Reinventing Construction: A Route To Higher Productivity, McKinsey & Company.

Beetz, J., Berlo, L.A.H.M. van, R. Laat, D., Bonsma, P., 2011. Advances in the development and application of an open source model server for building information. In: Proceedings of the 28th International Conference of CIB W78, Sophia Antipolis, October 2011, France.

Blitz, M., 2014. Understanding Heidegger on Technology. The New Atlantis 63–80.

Blumer, H., 2005. Society as Symbolic Interaction. In: Contemporary Sociological Thought Themes and Theories. Canadian Scholars’ Press, Toronto, pp. 91–100.

Bofylatos, S., Spyrou, T., 2016. Supporting Design Dialogue through a Communication Framework Using Four Layers of Abstraction. The Design Journal 19, pp. 269–282.

Bhoosan, S., 2017. Collaborative Design: Combining Computer-Aided Geometry Design and Building Information Modelling. Architectural Design 87, 82–89.

Bozdoc, M., n.d. History of CAD. URL (accessed 6.2.18).

Browne, E., 2003. The myth of self-describing XML. URL (accessed 3.07.18)

Buchdahl, G., 1966. Review of Displacement of Concepts. The Philosophical Quarterly (1950-) 16, pp. 86–87.

buildingSmart, 2016a. IFC4 - is it ready yet? Lifecycle BIM and smart FM. URL (accessed 5.12.18).

buildingSmart, 2016b. IFC4 DTV Objectives. URL (accessed 5.12.18).

buildingSmart, 2016c. IFC4 Design Transfer View. URL (accessed 5.12.18).

buildingSmart, 2016d. Coordination View Version 2.0 Summary. URL (accessed 5.12.18).

buildingSmart, n.d. IFC4 Documentation. URL (accessed 15.5.18).

Buneman, P., 1997. Semistructured Data. In: Proceedings of the Sixteenth ACM SIGACT-SIGMOD-SIGART Symposium on Principles of Database Systems, PODS ’97. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp. 117–121.

Burrow, A., Woodbury, R., 1999. π-Resolution in Design Space Exploration. In: Augenbroe, G., Eastman, C. (Eds.), Computers in Building: Proceedings of the CAADfutures’99 Conference. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 291–308.

Bradner, E., Iorio, F., Davis, M., 2014. Parameters tell the design story: ideation and abstraction in design optimization. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Simulation for Architecture & Urban Design, SimAUD ’14. Society for Computer Simulation International, San Diego, CA, USA, pp. 1–8.

Bryman, A., 2012. Social Research Methods, 4th ed., University Press, Oxford.

Bryman, A., Becker, S., Sempik, J., 2008. Quality Criteria for Quantitative, Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research: A View from Social Policy. International Journal of Social Research Methodology 11, pp. 261–276.

C. Ireland, D. Bowers, M. Newton, K. Waugh, 2009. A Classification of Object-Relational Impedance Mismatch. In: 2009 First International Conference on Advances in Databases, Knowledge, and Data Applications, pp. 36–43.

Cabello, R., 2018. three.js: JavaScript 3D library.

Carpo, M., 2011. The Alphabet and the Algorithm. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Carpo, M. (Ed.), 2012. The Digital Turn in Architecture 1992-2012. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

Carpo, M. (Ed.), 2017. The Participatory Turn That Never Was. In: The Second Digital Turn, Design Beyond Intelligence. MIT Press, pp. 131–144.

Carr-Saunders, A.M., Wilson, P.A., 1933. The Professions. Clarendon Press.

Chidamber, S.R., Kemerer, C.F., 1994. A metrics suite for object oriented design. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 20, pp. 476–493.

Charef, R., Emmitt, S., Alaka, H., Fouchal, F., 2019. Building Information Modelling adoption in the European Union: An overview. Journal of Building Engineering 25, 100777.

Clark, T., 2018. V&A Dundee: A Design Story.

Clausen, K., Stokholm Poulsgaard, K., 2018. Dirty Works – A Platform Approach To The Design And Delivery Of Complex Buildings.

Cominetti, M., Stefanescu, D., Pickmans Ortega, A., Fraguada, L., Pearson, W., 2018. SpeckleDynamo: Speckle Client for Dynamo. Speckle Works.

Conklin, J., 2005. Dialogue Mapping: Building Shared Understanding of Wicked Problems. Wiley, Chichester.

Cooper, A., Reimann, R., Cronin, D., Noessel, C., 2014. About Face: The Essentials of Interaction Design. John Wiley & Sons, Indianapolis, Ind.

Crowley, K., Head, B.W., 2017. The enduring challenge of ‘wicked problems’: revisiting Rittel and Webber. Policy Sciences 50, pp. 539–547.

Cyganiak, R., Wood, D., Lanthaler, M. (Eds.), 2014. RDF 1.1 Concepts and Abstract Syntax.

Dainty, A., Leiringer, R., Fernie, S., Harty, C., 2017. BIM and the small construction firm: a critical perspective. Building Research & Information 45, 696–709.

Dainty, A., Moore, D., Murray, M., 2006. Communication In Construction. Routledge, London; New York.

D’Ambra, J., Rice, R.E., O’Connor, M., 1998. Computer-mediated communication and media preference: An investigation of the dimensionality of perceived task equivocality and media richness. Behaviour & Information Technology 17, pp. 164–174.

Darwen, H., Date, C.J., 1995. The Third Manifesto. SIGMOD Rec. 24, pp. 39–49.

Dawes, S.S., Cresswell, A.M., Pardo, T.A., 2009. From “Need to Know” to “Need to Share”: Tangled Problems, Information Boundaries, and the Building of Public Sector Knowledge Networks. Public Administration Review 69, pp. 392–402.

de Vries, B., 1995. Message Development in The Building Process.

de Vries, B., Somers, L.J., 1995. Message exchange in the building industry. Automation in Construction 4, pp. 91–100.

Deutsch, R., 2017. Understanding Architectural Workflows in Global Practice. Architectural Design 87, pp. 56–67.

Dietrich, W.C., Nackman, L.R., Sundaresan, C.J., Gracer, F., n.d. TGMS: An object-oriented system for programming geometry. Software: Practice and Experience 19, pp. 979–1013.

Durkheim, E., 1997. The Division of Labour in Society. Simon and Schuster.

Eastman, C., Lividini, J., Stoker, D., 1975. A database for designing large physical systems. In: Proceedings of the May 19-22, 1975, National Computer Conference and Exposition, AFIPS ’75. Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, pp. 603–611.

Eastman, C., 1980. System facilities for CAD databases. In: Proceedings of the 17th Design Automation Conference, DAC ’80. Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, pp. 50–56.

Eastman, C., Henrion, M., 1977. Glide: A Language for Design Information Systems. In: Proceedings of the 4th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, SIGGRAPH ’77. ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp. 24–33.

Eastman, C., Teicholz, P., Sacks, R., Liston, K., 2008. BIM Handbook: A Guide to Building Information Modelling for Owners, Managers, Designers, Engineers and Contractors. John Wiley & Sons.

Emmitt, S., Gorse, C.A., 2003. Construction Communication. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford.

Fischer M A, L.G.T.B., 1995. Representing project information and construction method knowledge for computer- aided construction management. Fischer M. A., Law K. H., Luiten B.(ed.); Modelling of buildings through their life-cycle; Stanford, August 1995.

Fischer, M., Gijsbertus, L., Aalami, F., 1995. Representing project information and construction method knowledge for computer- aided construction management.

Franzen, M., 1992. Anthony Giddens and His Critics. Acta Sociologica 35, pp. 151–155.

Freidson, E., 1989. Theory and the Professions. Indiana Law Journal 64, pp. 423–434.

Froese, T., 2003. Future directions for IFC-based interoperability. Journal of Information Technology in Construction 8, pp. 231–246.

Gantt, M., Nardi, B.A., 1992. Gardeners and gurus: patterns of cooperation among CAD users. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI ’92. Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, pp. 107–117.

Gamma, E., Helm, R., Johnson, R., Vlissidess, J., 2015. Design Patterns: Elements Of Reusable Object Oriented Software. Pearson Education.

Garber, R. (Ed.), 2017. Workflows: Expanding Architecture’s Territory in the Design and Delivery of Buildings. John Wiley & Sons, Oxford.

Garfinkel, H., Rawls, A., 2006. Toward a Sociological Theory of Information. Routledge, Boulder, Colorado.

Giddens, A., 1991. The Consequences of Modernity. Polity Press, Cambridge.

Grice, H.P., 1991. Studies in the Way of Words. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Goldup, K., Kostura, Z., Tavolaro, T., Wolfe, S., 2017. Advanced Engineering with Building Information Modelling: Establishing Flexible Frameworks for the Design and Documentation of Complex Buildings. Architectural Design 87, 120–127.

Guzmán, J.G., Carpio, A.F., Colomo-Palacios, R., Diego, M.V., 2013. Living Labs for User-Driven Innovation: A Process Reference Model. Research-Technology Management 56, pp. 29–39.

Hamil, S., 1994. The End Of Babel - IFC promotional video.

Hanna, S., 2014. Ontological Uncertainty and Design: Requirements for Creative Machines.

Hardi, J., Pittard, S., 2015. If BIM is the solution, what is the problem? A review of the benefits, challenges and key drivers in BIM implementation within the UK construction industry. Building Survey, Appraisal and Valuation 3, pp. 366–373.

Harman, G., 2009. Prince of Networks: Bruno Latour and Metaphysics., Melbourne.

Heumann, A., Mullenix, R., 2014. Computational Approaches to Process, Practice and Product. Presented at ACADIA 2014, pp. 317–326.

Hier, S.P. (Ed.), 2005. Contemporary Sociological Thought Themes and Theories Contemporary Sociological Thought: Themes and Theories. Canadian Scholars’ Press, Toronto.

Holzer, D., 2007. Are You Talking to Me? Why BIM Alone Is Not The Answer.

Hong, Y., Hammad, A.W.A., Sepasgozar, S., Akbarnezhad, A., 2019. BIM adoption model for small and medium construction organisations in Australia. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management.

Hu, Z.-Z., Zhang, X.-Y., Wang, H.-W., Kassem, M., 2016. Improving interoperability between architectural and structural design models: An industry foundation classes-based approach with web-based tools. Automation in Construction 66, pp. 29–42.

Jenkins, P., Forsyth, L. (Eds.), 2009. Architecture, Participation and Society. Routledge, London; New York.

Kalay, Y.E., 1998. P3: Computational environment to support design collaboration. Automation in Construction 8, pp. 37–48.

Kant, I., 2002. Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals. Yale University Press, New Haven.

Knecht, K., Stefanescu, D., Koenig, R., 2019. Citizen Engagement through Design Space Exploration: Integrating Citizen Knowledge and Expert Design in Computational Urban Planning. In: ECAADe SIGraDi 2019.

Koestler, A., 1982. The Ghost in the Machine. Last Century Media.

Koestler, A., 2014. The Act of Creation. Last Century Media.

Koch, C., Paavola, S., Buhl, H., 2019. Social science and construction – an uneasy and underused relation. Construction Management and Economics 37, 309–316.

Koschmann, T., 2011. Understanding understanding in action. Journal of Pragmatics 43, pp. 435–437.

Kuhn, T.S., 1962. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.

Kusiak, A., 2007. Innovation: The Living Laboratory Perspective. Computer-Aided Design and Applications 4, pp. 863–876.

Kvan, T., 2000. Collaborative design: what is it? Automation in Construction 9, pp. 409–415.

Lakoff, G., Johnson, M., 1980. Metaphors We Live By. University of Chicago Press.

Larson, M.S., 1979. Professionalism: Rise and Fall. International Journal of Health Services 9, pp. 607–627.

Larson, M.S., 2017. The Rise of Professionalism. In: Class. Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 263–286.

Latour, B., 2007. Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory, Oxford University Press, USA, Oxford.

Lawson, B., 2004. What Designers Know, Routledge, Amsterdam.

Lawson, B., 2005. How Designers Think: The Design Process Demystified, Routledge, Amsterdam.

Leminen, S., Westerlund, M., Nyström, A.-G., 2012. Living Labs as Open-Innovation Networks. Technology Innovation Management Review 6–11.

Lewicki, R.J., McAllister, D.J., Bies, R.J., 1998. Trust and Distrust: New Relationships and Realities. The Academy of Management Review 23, pp. 438–458.

Lynch, M., 2011. Commentary: On Understanding Understanding. Journal of Pragmatics 43, pp. 553–555.

Maher, M.L., Poon, J., 1996. Modelling Design Exploration as Co-Evolution. Microcomputers in Civil Engineering 11, pp. 195–209.

Marshall, J.C., 1977. Minds, Machines and Metaphors. Social Studies of Science 7, pp. 475–488.

McCall, R., Schaab, B., Schuler, W., Mistrik, I., 1984. A Database Model as The Basis Of A Workstation For The Designer. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Research Forum in Information Science. Presented at the IRFIS 5, Elsevier, Heidelberg, pp. 301–324.

McKenna, C.D., 2006. Review of The System of Professions: An Essay on the Division of Expert Labour. The Business History Review 80, pp. 141–144.

McKinney, K., Kim, J., Fischer, M., Howard, C., 2000. Interactive 4D-CAD.

Metzger, M.J., Flanagin, A.J., 2013. Credibility and trust of information in online environments: The use of cognitive heuristics. Journal of Pragmatics 59, 210–220.

Migilinskas, D., Popov, V., Juocevicius, V., Ustinovichius, L., 2013. The Benefits, Obstacles and Problems of Practical BIM Implementation. Procedia Engineering, Modern Building Materials, Structures and Techniques 57, pp. 767–774.

Nour, M., 2009. Performance of Different (BIM/IFC) Exchange  Formats Within a Private Collaborative Workspace For Collaborative Work. Journal of Information Technology in Construction 14, pp. 736–752.

Oraee, M., Hosseini, M.R., Papadonikolaki, E., Palliyaguru, R., Arashpour, M., 2017. Collaboration in BIM-based construction networks: A bibliometric-qualitative literature review. International Journal of Project Management, Social Responsibilities for the Management of Megaprojects 35, pp. 1288–1301.

Oudshoorn, N. (Ed.), 2005. How Users Matter (Inside Technology): The Co-Construction of Users and Technology, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. London.

Outhwaite, W., 1991. Review of The Consequences of Modernity. Sociology 25, pp. 162–163.

Pascu, C., Lieshout, M. van, 2009. User‐led, Citizen Innovation at The Interface of Services.

Poinet, P., Stanojevic, D., Mendez, Y., Durán, D., 2019. Piped Assemblies: A Collaborative Seamless Workflow for the Design, Fabrication and Assembly of a Complex Structure. In: Impact: Design With All Senses. Presented at the DMS.

Plume, J., Mitchell, J., 2007. Collaborative design using a shared IFC building model—Learning from experience. Automation in Construction, CAAD Futures, 2005 16, pp. 28–36.

Quirk, V., 2012. A Brief History of BIM. ArchDaily. URL (accessed 20.6.18).

Rith, C., Dubberly, H., 2007. Why Horst W. J. Rittel Matters. Design Issues 23, pp. 72–91.

Rittel, H.W.J., Webber, M.M., 1973. Dilemmas in a general theory of planning 15.

Roberts, N., 2000. Wicked Problems and Network Approaches to Resolution. International Public Management Review 1, pp. 1–19.

Rogers, Y., Marshall, P., Carroll, J.M., 2017. Research in the Wild. Morgan & Claypool.

Russel, D.L., 1968. Review of Invention and the Evolution of Ideas. Sociology 2, pp. 252–253.

Sacks, H., Schegloff, E.A., Jefferson, G., 1974. A Simplest Systematics for the Organization of Turn-Taking for Conversation. Language 50, pp. 696–735.

Sacks, R., Eastman, C., Lee, G., 2010. Information and Process Flow in Models of Precast Concrete Design and Construction.

Scheurer, F., Stehling, H., 2011a. Lost in Parameter Space? Architectural Design 81, pp. 70–79.

Schön, D.A., 1991. The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action. Routledge, Farnham.

Schön, D.A., 2011. Displacement of Concepts. Routledge, Farnham.

Shafiq, M.T., Matthews, J., R, S., 2013. A study of BIM collaboration requirements and available features in existing model collaboration systems. Journal of Information Technology in Construction (ITcon) 18, pp. 148–161.

Shea, K., Aish, R., Gourtovaia, M., 2005. Towards integrated performance-driven generative design tools. Automation in Construction, Education and Research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe (eCAADe 2003), Digital Design 14, pp. 253–264.

Sismondo, S., 1997. Science without Myth: On Constructions, Reality, and Social Knowledge. SUNY Press.

Smith, A., 2017. The Wealth of Nations.

Sperber, D., 1995. Relevance: Communication and Cognition; Cambridge, MA.

Stinchcombe, A.L., 1990. Restructuring the Sociology of the Professions. Contemporary Sociology 19, pp. 48–50.

Strathern, M., 2000. The Tyranny of Transparency. British Educational Research Journal 26, pp. 309–321.

Suter, R., 2018. NSwag: The Swagger/OpenAPI toolchain for .NET, Web API and TypeScript.

Thein, W., 2015. BIM Interoperability Through a Vendor-Independent File Format. A Bentley Technical White Paper.

Tsoukas, H., 1997. The tyranny of light: The temptations and the paradoxes of the information society. Futures 29, pp. 827–843.

Tufte, E.R., 1990. Envisioning Information, Graphics Press USA, Cheshire, Connecticut.

Tufte, E.R., 2001. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information, Graphics Press USA, Cheshire, Conn.

van Berlo, Beetz, J., Bos, P., Hendriks, H., van Tongeren, R., 2012. Collaborative engineering with IFC: new insights and technology.

Vandergriff, I., 2013. Emotive communication online: A contextual analysis of computer-mediated communication (CMC) cues. Journal of Pragmatics 51, pp. 1–12.

Walz, D.B., Elam, J.J., Curtis, B., 1993. Inside a Software Design Team: Knowledge Acquisition, Sharing, and Integration. ACM 36, pp. 63–77.

Wambler, S., 1996. The Object-Relational Impedance Mismatch. URL (accessed 4.6.18).

Watts, D.J., Strogatz, S.H., 1998. Collective dynamics of ‘small-world’ networks 393, 3.

Weber, E.P., Khademian, A.M., 2008. Wicked Problems, Knowledge Challenges, and Collaborative Capacity Builders in Network Settings. Public Administration Review 68, pp. 334–349.

Wilson, D., Sperber, D., 2008. Relevance Theory. In: The Handbook of Pragmatics. Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 606–632.

Wood, D.J., Gray, B., 1991. Toward a Comprehensive Theory of Collaboration. The Journal of Applied Behavioural Science 27, pp. 139–162.

Woodbury, R., Datta, S., Burrow, A., 2000. Erasure in Design Space Exploration. In: Artificial Intelligence in Design ’00. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 521–543.

Woodbury, R.F., 1991. Searching for designs: Paradigm and practice. Building and Environment, Special Issue Developments in Computer-Aided Design 26, 61–73.

Woodbury, R.F., Burrow, A.L., 2003. Notes on the Structure of Design Space. International Journal of Architectural Computing 1, 517–532.

Woodbury, R.F., Burrow, A.L., 2006a. A typology of design space explorers. Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing : AI EDAM; Cambridge 20, 143–153.

Woodbury, R.F., Burrow, A.L., 2006b. Whither design space? Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing : AI EDAM; Cambridge 20, 63–82.

Yalcinkaya, M., Arditi, D., 2013. Building Information Modelling (BIM) and the Construction Management Body of Knowledge. In: Bernard, A., Rivest, L., Dutta, D. (Eds.), Product Lifecycle Management for Society. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 619–629.

Yates, J., 2006. Review of The Social Construction of Technological Systems: New Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology. The Business History Review 80, pp. 144–147.

Zeisel, J., Eberhard, J.P., 2006. Inquiry by Design: Environment/Behavior/Neuroscience in Architecture, Interiors, Landscape, and Planning, Rev. W. W. Norton & Company, New York.